In my last legacy Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) post I covered Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). I described how TDM works and why it does not efficiently use bandwidth. In this post let's take a look at Statistical Time Division Multiplexing (STDM or STATDM or STAT MUX), a much more efficient way to multiplex.
A Statistical Time Division Multiplexer (STDM or STATDM or STAT MUX) does not assign specific time slots for each device. An STDM adds an address field to each time slot in the frame and does not transmit empty frames. Only devices that require time slots get them.
STDM uses dynamic time slot lengths that are variable. Communicating devices that are very active will be assigned greater time slot lengths than devices that are less active. If a device is idle, it will not receive any time slots. For periods where there is much activity STDMs have buffer memory for temporary data storage.
Each STDM transmission carries channel identifier information. Channel identifier information includes source device address and a count of the number of data characters that belong to the listed source address. Channel identifiers are extra and considered overhead and are not data. To reduce the cost of channel identifier overhead it makes sense to group large numbers of characters for each channel together.
In my next legacy PSTN post I'll cover Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM).