## Monday, February 13, 2012

### DS-4 and DS-5 Lines

It's been a while since I've posted on what I've been calling the Legacy Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). My last related post was way back on December 15, 2011 titled What's a T3 Line? Today, Let's take a look at higher bit rate signals in the DS system.

DS-4 Signal
Back on December 15th, we said each DS-3 signal carries a bit rate of 44.736 Mbps. Six 44.736 Mbps digital DS-3 signals are multiplexed into one DS-4 signal. If we have six DS-3 signals per DS-4 signal and each DS-3 signal is 44.736 Mbps we can calculate:

Adding overhead consisting of timing and synchronization bits brings the DS-4 bit rate to 274.176 Mbps.

DS-4 Formation

DS-5 Signal
Each DS-4 signal carries a bit rate of 274.176 Mbps. Two 274.176 Mbps digital DS-4 signals are multiplexed into one DS-5 signal. If we have two DS-4 signals per DS-5 signal and each DS-4 signal is 274.176 Mbps we can calculate:

Adding overhead consisting of timing and synchronization bits brings the DS-5 bit rate to 560.16 Mbps.

DS-5 Formation

One DS-5 channel can carry 8064 voice channels.

We can look at a table showing these DS data rates and how they correspond to the North American T Carrier system.

Looking at the table it is easy to see that the DS-0 signal level is the foundation for the entire T Carrier hierarchy in North America. Notice one DS-1 line is the equivalent of 24 DS0 64 Kbps DS-0 voice channels. Also notice that one DS-2 line is the equivalent of 4 DS-1 lines or 96 DS-0 voice channels.

Copper wire pairs can be used to transmit at levels up to DS-2. At levels above DS-2 coaxial cable, fiber or microwaves must be used.

In my next Legacy PSTN post I'll cover the European (E) Carrier System.